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Pests, Predators and Diseases of Beehives
The dream of having your own hive of honey bees brings with it many fantasies. Some feature the idea of having many jars of honey to use or give away. Whether you want to produce buckets of fresh honey or increase pollination in the garden, beekeeping is an enduring hobby. But, keeping bees is not as simple as it may seem. There are many honey bee pests, predators and diseases that threaten the health and productivity of our hives. Keeping our bees healthy depends on understanding the various honey bee pests and learning how to deal with the issues that we have some control over.
Beekeepers are farmers-at least according to the USDA. Unlike other farmers, our livestock is not under our complete control.
No matter how well you manage your bee hives, you can not keep them completely safe. Honey bees forage far and near gathering food for the colony. Millions of blooming plants are visited to collect nectar and pollen for the colony.
As the busy worker bee collects necessary resources for the hive, she is at risk. Foraging is a dangerous activity with numerous honey bee predators around. Our hard-working ladies could be eaten by a predator insect, be exposed to pesticides and even unknowing bring problem back to the hive.
As a beekeeper, it sometimes seems that everything is out to get our bees. But this is nature and we must deal with problems that arise as best we can. In spite of all we do to keep our bees healthy, things will go wrong sometimes.
Honey Bee Pests
While the foraging bee takes the greatest risk on a day by day basis, bees inside the hive are also in danger. There are several types of bee pests responsible for damage to the colony inside the beehive.
Some pests are just an annoyance and may bother the beekeeper more than the bee colony. However, the amount of damage inflected varies depending on the type of pest and the strength of the colony.
Nuisance pests only become a major problem in a colony that is sick or weak for other reasons. Others do more than consume resources such as pollen and honey. They diseases that affect the entire colony. Their presence places a colony at a high risk of failure.
Varroa Mite Control
A relatively new pest to honey bees is the Varroa Mite. This external pest of the honey bee is a small reddish mite. They are very small but large enough to be seen with the naked eye. They are not the only mites in the hive but they are the most deadly.
Varroa Mites are the #1 killer of bee hives world wide. Feeding on bees and brood, these mites weaken colonies and result in deformed, disease ridden adults.
Every successful beekeeper must have a mite control plan. Varroa Mite levels should be monitored throughout the year – especially during the warm season. If the level is high, then treatment options can be considered.
So how do you know how many mites your bees have? You can not rely on visible inspection because most of the mites will be hidden inside the brood cells-making baby mites!
There are several ways of testing for varroa that the beekeeper can use to gage how bad things are in the hive. Don’t delay this important task.
Even beekeepers familiar with the dangers of mite infestations may fail to act quickly. Knowing when to treat your bees for mites before it is too late is critical. And ,it does become too late to save a colony.
There is sometimes a tendency to wait until Fall to treat. This can be a devastating mistake for bee colonies. Do not use the calendar as a definite guide for when you should treat for varroa mites.
The beekeeper has several different choices to consider when choosing the best varroa mite treatments for bees. Some methods are easier to use and others represent possible contamination of the comb and honey inside.
In recent years, the use of oxalic acid for varroa mite control has become popular in the US. Used successfully for years in Europe, American beekeepers have added this tool to their mite control program.
The search continues for more natural ways to deal with varroa mite problems. Can essential oils help honey bees be healthier? Many beekeepers say yes.
They have developed essential oil recipes for honey bee health and believe they are useful. However, any method of mite control requires constant monitoring to make sure it worked.
Small Hive Beetles Can Take Down Strong Colonies
Small Hive Beetles originated in Africa. A hard shelled black beetle, they can fly for miles. They are a major pest for beekeepers in many parts of the United States.
Small Hive Beetles are a pest in many regions of the US. One of the best ways to deal with hive beetles is to understand their behavior. They are less of a problem in strong hives.
In addition to keeping populous colonies, there are several different types of Small Hive Beetle Traps that may help. Trying to keep every single beetle out may be impossible but keeping the numbers under control is important.
Minor Bee Pests
Some types of bee hive pests are more of a nuisance than a true threat to the colony. Of course, that does not mean that they pose no threat. A weak, sick colony may succumb to even a mild threat.
Wax Moths In Beehives
Wax Moths are small gray moths that resemble small butterflies. They get a bad rap in the world of beekeeping. Blamed for the death of many colonies, they are actually nature’s scavengers.
Their goal is to sneak into the hive and find a secluded place on the comb to lay eggs. Moths can destroy valuable honey comb and hive resources.
However, they are only a problem when the bee colony is weak for some other reason. Wax Moth infestations are a symptom of another problem.
Did Wax Moths kill your bees ? Probably not, moths rarely cause the death of healthy hives.
Common Ants Minor Pest of Bees
Some species of ants can certainly cause colony failure. One example is the Argentine Ant found in parts of the US. If you live in a region with especially viscous ants, extra precautions may be necessary.
However, most of the time, ants bother the beekeepers more than the bees themselves. These tiny insects seems to be able to get in the smallest cracks. Attracted to the honey and sugar water located in a hive, they can become very aggravating.
Predators of Honey Beehives
Foraging bees are subject to attack by many different predators while out in the field. Unfortunately, we are not the only ones who know that a beehive is a food resource.
The goal may be a big mouthful of honey, or a tasty bee snack, or perhaps some bee brood inside the hive! Predators can have an effect on your colonies. Sadly humans can be hive predators as many colonies are stolen every year.
- wasps – hornets – insects
In recent years, researchers notice some strange bee behaviors in colonies on the West coast. The problem began with a parasitic fly. After the fly lays eggs in the body of the bee, neurological damage seems to occur. Causing bees to behave erratically and earned them the name – Zombie Bees.
Some honey bee predators actually fly right up to the front of the hive to attack. Flying insects such as wasps and hornets will capture foragers near the hive entrance. If the colony is weak, the intruder may go right inside the hive.
Recently, a new insect -the Giant Asian Hornet– has caused beekeepers to worry. However, there are other insect predators that may prey on your colonies. Yellow Jacket Wasps are known to be a problem for small hive in late Summer.
You may consider trying Yellow Jacket traps as they are a big problem in your region. Just a few here and there are not a problem.
It is important to remember that these insects help control other pests too. You don’t need to destroy every one you see. But, it is a good idea to learn how to identify bee nests vs wasp nests to keep them out of your bee yard.
In some regions, bears destroy beehives each season. If you live in an area with a bear population, it is best to build a electric bear fence right away. It is much easier to keep a bear away that to stop him once he has a nice taste of honey and bee brood.
Unfortunately, humans must be consider a predator of your honey bee colonies. Create your bee yard in a safe place where it can be watched by yourself or neighbors. Yes, people steal bee colonies every year – not all beekeepers are honest.
Honey Bee Diseases that Beekeepers May Notice
Live most living things, honey bees fall prey to various diseases. Whether they are caused by bacteria, fungus or viruses, disease can take a toll on the productivity of a bee colony.
Unfortunately, the many viruses than can infect a hive are difficult to diagnose. It is usually necessary to send a sample into a bee research lab. Even then, there is often little you can do for viruses.
However, a couple of honey bee heath problems are notable and recognizable to the average beekeeper. At some time, most beekeepers will have a case of European Foulbrood in their hive. The sign of dead brood can be frightening but the disease often clears up on its own with good foraging weather.
One of the most feared diseases in beekeeping is American Foulbrood (AFB). Most beekeepers will never see a case of AFB. And, thank goodness for that! AFB has not reliable cure and can be found in old equipment for decades.
Familiarize yourself with the symptoms of American Foulbrood in hopes you will recognize possible cases and seek help with needed. Beekeepers must be vigilant and watch for signs of unhealthy hives and then take what precautions they can.
Another problem that can cause honey bee colonies to be unproductive or even fail is nosema disease. While nosema can destroy a hive, a light case often clears up on it’s own.
The only treatment for bees with Nosema is using the antibiotic Fumgallin. This however, only control the problem and does not eradicate it fully.
Final Tips on Common Honey Bee Pests, Predators and Diseases
Every serious beekeeper wants to do everything possible to help our bee colonies be healthy and productive. In many cases, a good colony needs little help.
But there will be times when the beekeeper must intervene to ensure survival of the hive. Learning the nature of each one of the common beehive pests and predators will help you protect your bees.