Beehives produce several useful products such as honey and beeswax. However, some beekeepers invest the time and effort to harvest propolis too. Bee propolis can be used to make tinctures and other holistic products. The beekeeper may sell raw propolis to supply companies this adds another income stream to help offset the costs.
Collecting Propolis from Your Beehive
Worker honey bees, called foragers, fly from the hive to find food and other needed resources for the colony. There are thousands of these female bees that keep the colony working on a daily basis.
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In fact, there are several things collected by worker bees. Food collection is primary of course. They visit flowers to collect plant nectar which is used to make honey. Pollen is gathered to use as a protein source for rearing young bees.
But these are not the only resources needed by the colony. In addition to gathering food and water, bees also collect plant resins. Resins are sticky secretions produced by various plants and trees.
What is Bee Propolis?
The definition of propolis is a red or brownish substance collected by honey bees from tree buds and plant. It is used by bees to polish inside the hive, clean and seal cracks. It contains plant resins and bee saliva.
The correct pronunciation prop·o·lis has an accent on the first section “prop”. However, you will find many beekeepers who pronounce it with an emphasis on the first 3 letters “pro-po-lis.”
Another word for propolis is “bee glue”. If you have ever experienced propolis inside a hive, you understand why it is called glue.
In addition to polishing the inside of the hive with this sticky substance, they also stick down every frame. And, seal the small cracks between each box to keep out cold wind.
All of this work by the bees can make beehive inspections a bit more difficult. But, the use of propolis promotes good colony health.
Propolis has anti-fungal, antiviral and antibacterial properties. It helps prevent unwanted fungus or bacterial growth inside the warm humid hive.
How Bees Carry Propolis
Worker honey bees gather plant resins and bring them back to the hive on their hind legs (pollen baskets). Bee saliva along with wax, honey, etc is mixed with the resins to create the substance we call propolis.
The exact chemical composition of propolis varies slightly from one location to another due to the different plants used for resin and sap collection.
Cleaning Bee Glue During Inspections
Some colonies produce more propolis inside the hive than others. This seems to be, at least in part, a genetic trait.
In spite of the health benefits to the colony, having too much propolis in the hive can make beekeeping tasks very difficult.
It is not uncommon for beekeepers to attempt to remove at least some of the excess during routine inspections. This mostly refers to frames that are being propolis down too securely.
However, try as we will to make changes in the hive – the bees will just replace the propolis.
Propolis Harvesting Methods
Selling propolis is big business due to a high demand in the healthcare industry. However, small scale beekeepers can also harvest raw propolis from their hives.
No damage is done to the bees in the hive with normal harvest methods. Using a propolis trap or collecting box scrapings should not inconvenience the colony very much.
How to Use a Propolis Trap on Your Hive
The best time of year to trap propolis is early Fall. During this time the bees are working hard to plug any cracks.
When the trap is placed between the inner cover and top super, bees usually fill each cavity with bee glue.
Once the trap is full, or before Winter cold arrives – remove it. After placing it in the freezer for a bit, bits of propolis will pop out when the trap is flexed.
Another option used by some beekeepers is to create a propolis trap using metal screen wire. Window screen is a common choice with a frame of wood. This is simiar to a regular shim with the additon of the wire.
Placed inside the hive in the same position, the bees will also propolize the screen. This is only left on the colony for a short time and removed before Winter arrives.
Gathering Bee Propolis Scrapings
One easy way to collect propolis is to scrape it from your equipment. After extracting honey, the honey super boxes can contain some propolis.
A beehive that has failed and is empty is another place to look for bee glue. Scraping is an easier way to get propolis without disturbing the hive.
However, it can be difficult to avoid getting wood scrapings in your collected propolis. Simply use your hive tool to peel the propolis off the surfaces.
After scraping the wooden surfaces, store your propolis in a jar or plastic bag in the freezer. Once you have enough to bother with, you can clean the propolis and prepare it for use.
How to Scrape Bee Propolis from Equipment
- Spread a sheet or plastic tarp on the floor to catch the scrapings
- Inspect each wooden hive part – looking for sticky propolis
- Use your hive tool to gently scrape off the bee glue
- Avoid getting wood shavings in the product as much as possible
- When finished – gather your tarp and pour propolis bits into a jar
- Store in freezer until ready to clean
Final Tips on How to Harvest Propolis
The demand for propolis is very high. Raw propolis can be sold to several online companies. Do a search for them and make a bit of extra money from your hives.
You can also make your own propolis tinctures, creams etc.- after cleaning and preparing.
Learn how to harvest propolis from bees and add another valuable product from the hive to your apiary.