Beehive Inspection – Yes You Need to Look
You finally have your first hive of bees. Everything is so exciting and you don’t want to mess up, right ! Months and months have been spent in research and reading. You are ready, hopefully.
Now – It is time for a first hive inspection and you cant wait to get in there. But, maybe you don’t know what to look for. How can you tell if everything is OK?
I’ve been there my friends. I remember opening my first hive on my own like it was yesterday. In this post, I will share tips that will help you perform a successful beehive inspection. At the bottom of this post, you will find a video to help you recognize the various things you need to look for while your hive is open.
How Often Should You Look In The Hive
A vital component of successful beekeeping is doing routine beehive inspections. During your first year of beekeeping, you will open your beehive more often than normal. That is okay. Learning how to be a good beekeeper requires some hands-on experience in the hive. You will want to know what to look for during your hive inspection and don’t stay in there too long. Take the time to learn familiarize yourself with normal beehive conditions by watching the beehive inspection video more than once.
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It’s Important to Realize…..
Interfering with your new colonies too much causes colony stress. This stress can lead to undesirable actions by the bees. They may kill their queen, decide to replace her or leave the hive completely. So, how much is too much and when should beehive inspections occur?
Hive inspection frequency depends on several factors. Hive genetics, foraging conditions, and your climate situation affects colony conditions. Most beekeepers agree (believe it or not) on the importance of quick inspections periodically. YOU CAN DO THIS !
How to Do A Beehive Inspection
#1 Queen Check
If you purchased a package of honey bees, they arrived with a mated queen and a few attendants in a small queen cage. The queen cage may be wooden or plastic. The white candy plug allows a slow release and gives the colony time to accept the queen. Wait 4-5 days and check to see if she is released from the queen cage. If so, remove the queen cage but don’t go looking for her on every frame. Don’t stress your new colony. Push the frames together and close the hive.
If your queen is not released, recheck again in a couple of days. Around day 7 you can release her, if needed. Don’t get in too big a hurry to release your queen.
A new queen dead in her cage suggests you may have a loose queen in the package bees. Look carefully through your bees for a queen or signs of a queen. If you find another queen, mystery solved you have a loose queen. No visible sighting of a queen means waiting another 3-5 days and check again for eggs or larva. Failure to find evidence of a queen at this time means you need to get a new queen quickly. Remember the population in your hive will decline over the first 3-4 weeks, older bees will die before new ones emerge. If you are queenless, you must provide a queen or fresh eggs to your colony while the population is still good.
#2 Burr Comb Is Okay
Your new bees will begin to build honey comb. Building comb (also called drawing comb) is hard work. Bees consume a lot of nectar to produce wax. Proper feeding will help your bees have the resources to build comb quickly. You may find some awkward honey comb built around the queen cage. This is normal and you can remove it and push the frames back together. We call this “oddly placed” comb burr comb. It may also appear on the tops of frames indicating that the wooden ware is not cut precisely enough to preserve the proper spacing desired by the bees. I normally scrape some of it off but if your bee space is off, the bees will just build it back. Too much burr comb between the frames is a bigger problems that extra comb on top.
A Closer Look
My beehive inspection video with practice examples below gives you a good overview of things to look for. However, you still need to understand hive basics before hive inspection time.
Once the queen is released and accepted by the colony, she begins to lay eggs. In just a few days, eggs become larvae. Larvae are white grub-like baby bees. Once the queen is released and accepted by the colony, she begins to lay eggs. In just a few days, eggs become larvae. Larvae are white grub-like baby bees and we call them “milk brood”. If you see small larvae in your hive, it is a good sign. Your colony is probably “queen right”. Capped worker brood is easy to identify. When larvae reach the pupal growth stage,(around day 9-10) they no longer need to be fed. Adult workers cap the cells with old wax. Inside the capped cell, the larvae will make the final transformation into an adult bee. Beekeepers want a tight pattern of brood with few empty cells. It is okay and desirable to have a small number of cells open. If you only see milk brood, you will want to recheck in a week to confirm capped worker brood. Occasionally, a queen is not properly mated and she will look great but not be able to produce a good patter of worker brood.
Once the queen is released and accepted by the colony, she begins to lay eggs. In just a few days, eggs become larvae. Larvae are white grub-like baby bees and we call them “milk brood”. If you see small larvae in your hive, it is a good sign. Your colony is probably “queen right”. Capped worker brood is easy to identify. When larvae reach the pupal growth stage,(around day 9-10) they no longer need to be fed. Adult workers cap the cells with old wax. Inside the capped cell, the larvae will make the final transformation into an adult bee. Beekeepers want a tight pattern of brood with few empty cells. It is okay and desirable to have a small number of cells open. If you only see milk brood, you will want to recheck in a week to confirm capped worker brood. Occasionally, a queen is not properly mated and she will look great but not be able to produce a good patter of worker brood.
Some beekeepers use a special plastic drone comb for mite control. I am not a fan of this method but there are beekeepers who use it with success. If you choose to try this method, it would be a better project for an experienced beekeeper. Failure to remove the special frame at the right now could result in a “mite bomb” in your colony. High mite populations that will cause the colony to fail.
Drone Brood Is Not Always Bad
In capped worker (female bees) brood, cells protrude very little above the comb surface. Drone brood (male bees) cells are larger than worker brood cells. The cappings of drone cells protrude noticeably from the cell wall. They are sometimes described as “bullet” shaped. It is natural to have drone cells in your colony during the warm season. They are usually on the outer edges of the brood nest. New beekeepers often confuse drone brood for queen cells. Drones fulfill an important role in the honey bee colony.
What looks bad-
Funky Comb – More Than Just A Little Burr Comb
As your bees draw comb,they will sometimes do some strange things. Strange to the beekeeper’s eye – the bees have their own plan. Keeping your frames pushed together can help prevent “wonky” comb built where you don’t want comb. However, bees will sometimes start sheets of comb that are not in line with the foundation. This happens more often on plastic foundation but it can occur in any bee hive. Remove weird comb before the bees waste too much time and energy on it. The bees often get it right on the second try. Beekeepers using plastic foundation often brush melted beeswax on the plastic. This practice encourages bees to use the foundation.
The Brood Pattern Factor
Sometimes a beehive inspection will reveal a less than perfect brood pattern. A good queen can have a less than perfect brood pattern. We can not always blame the queen bee for everything that goes wrong. The time of year, foraging conditions and pests (mites) all contribute to good bee brood. However, the queen is a key factor . This is a time when having more than 1 colony is of benefit. If the other colonies are growing and this one is not, we must wonder why.
When Drone Brood Spells Trouble
A mated queen stores sperm inside her body. When her supply of sperm runs out, she can only lay unfertilized eggs. (Drone Brood) . The sign of a failed queen is a large amount of drone brood with no regular capped worker brood. The colony may recognize that the colony is failing and try to replace her by making a new queen. If not, the beekeeper must get a new queen for the colony. Kill the old queen (but not before you have a new queen “in your hand”). Introduce your new queen , using a special queen frame or slow release queen cage.
A bee colony may become queenless and fail to raise a new queen. When a honey bee colony is without a queen and brood for several weeks, some of the workers will start to lay eggs. Because they are unmated, the eggs laid by workers will all be drones. There is often more than 1 laying worker in a colony. These laying workers may also fly outside the hive and forage. The colony is doomed without beekeeper intervention.
How Often to Inspect
The frequency of a beehive inspection depends on the needs of the colony. Many beekeepers inspect new colonies at 2 week intervals. I inspect my established colonies monthly throughout the warm season. I have beekeeping journals dating back 10 years. Record the hive conditions you find during bee hive inspections in a notebook or on your phone. Keeping good records will help you learn honey bee management. It is fun to compare this year’s conditions to those of prior years.
Important tips for Beehive Inspections : It is not always necessary to see the queen. You only need to see evidence of a fertile queen. Properly laid eggs (in adjacent cells – one per cell) are a good sign. Concentrated areas of worker brood with some drone brood on the edge of the brood nest. A good brood pattern is a beautiful site to any beekeeper.
Lets Play – Practice Makes Perfect (Or at least better)
This is a video slide show. Each frame will give you 7 seconds to look before the answer appears. Just hit the pause button to give yourself more time. Then Play to continue. Have Fun.
New Beehive Inspection Sheet
Queen is present and laying (don’t see the queen- look for eggs/small larva)
good brood pattern
comb is being drawn
bees are bringing in pollen and nectar (feed if needed)
Good – check back in 2 weeks