How to Build the Best Electric Fence for Bears
The perfect location for your new beehive is ready. Are you forgetting something? Do you need an electric fence for bears?
After months spent learning everything you can about honey bees, you dont want to mess up now. This is your first experience with bees .
Equipment has been purchased and painted. Bees are ordered and due to arrive in early Spring. But you may not be the only one hoping to enjoy the harvest!
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How Do You Know If You Need an Electric Bear Fence?
Most regions of the United States have some type of bears in residence. Even the reclusive Black Bear can wreak havoc on a bee colony.
I have lived in upstate South Carolina all my life without ever seeing a Black Bear. Then, I started beekeeping and did not install an electric fence for bears.
One evening I was preparing to go speak at a local beekeeping meeting. A neighbor called and said “Charlotte, are you home? A bear just walked up your driveway!”
I ran outside and did not see the bear. It was time to leave because I was a guest speaker. Guess what I did the next morning? I installed an electric fence to protect my bee yard.
I made a note of the bear sighting in my beekeeping journal but it was years before I saw another one. I hope that luck holds.
If bears live in your region, you need to consider some type of protection. I know of many beekeepers who had never seen a bear in their area. Then, they awake one morning to beehive destruction.
A variety of chargers and insulators are suitable for your electric fence.
Why Do Bears Destroy Beehives?
Do bears like honey? Sure, they do. We have all seen it on TV for years. Even adorable Winnie the Pooh was always in search of a sweet “smackarel” of honey. But honey is not the main attraction.
Bears eat bee brood (baby bees). This is a sweet protein source for the bear. A little bee brood, some honey and chewy honeycomb. That’s a great meal to a bear in need of calories and protein. A bear can smell a beehive from up to a mile away.
Prevent Bear Problems
Bears are smart and strong. You would have to construct a very strong fence or wall to keep out a bear. Even an electric fence will not keep a determined bear out of the bee yard. However, our goal is to make it so unpleasant and difficult that the bear decides it is not worth the effort. This is easier when dealing with a bear that has never tasted honey/brood. An inexperienced bear may go on to easier pickings.
Once a bear is successful, it will return night after night until all the hives are destroyed. Even a strong electric fence for bear protection may not work once the bear gotten into the bees. Prevention is the key.
Why Electric is the Best Bear Fence
It is hard to stop a strong, determined bear. It will jump over a low fence, nose under the bottom strand or push right through. Bears have a great sense of smell but their eyesight is not so keen. The thick fur belt protects their skin and they are very strong. They are able to tear down most fence types.
We want the bear to slow down and take the time to see the electric fence and possibly stretch out its nose for a zap. Some beekeepers in troubled regions will bait their fence with a piece of bacon on a hot wire. This encourages the bears to sniff for the bacon and receive a zap. ( I have not done this because we have always had barn cats!)
Bears and Beekeepers
I think it is important to remember that the bear does not have a vendetta against beekeepers. This is nothing personal. They are simply trying to survive in a world of declining habitat. I “bear” them no ill will. However, I am not willing to sacrifice my beehives either.
Some beekeepers become so bothered by bear trouble that they move their hives to a new location. This can solve the problem but it often creates problem bears for other beekeepers in the area.
An Electric Fence Requires Investment & Maintenance
Beekeeping is not an inexpensive endeavor. Spending a few hundred dollars on an electric bear fence may seem unnecessary. Until, that is. You awake to destroyed hives.
How much is a beehive (and bees) worth? An investment in a fence usually lasts several years with little repair.
Maintenance will consist of testing the charge on the fence and keeping weeds from growing up under the wire. Keep the wires tight and in good working order. And for heavens sake, keep the fence charged. If the current is off, a bear will know.
How to Build Your Electric Fence for Bear Control
Beekeepers construct many different kinds of electric fences for bear deterrents. A simple, portable netting is used for a small number of transient colonies. Or an elaborate permanent fence structure is used for a home yard.
Your choice will depend on the concentration of bears in your region, your bee yard location and how much money you have to spend.
Materials Needed For Your Bear Fence
The basic configuration of an electric fence for bear consists of: a charger, wire, insulators and posts, and grounding rods.
A strong charger is required for a bear fence. Most beekeepers use a charger with a minimum of 5000 volts. Your charger can be powered by electricity or you may use a solar charger.
Electric fence wire is not very expensive. The most common size is 15-gauge wire. The most common recommendation is to use 5 wires 8-10 inches apart. The lowest wire should not be more than 8” off the ground.
Wires 1, 3 and 5 would be “hot” or charged wires. Wires 2 and 4 would be ground wires that are not charges. The fence should be at least 42” tall. Any conductive wire will work. Some beekeepers use pieces of field fencing.
Insulators hold the wires away from the post and are necessary for the fence to work. Plastic insulators can be purchased to use on t-post, fiberglass post or wooden post. Make sure you purchase the type of insulator that goes with your post type. I dislike the nails that come with the plastic insulators for wooden post. I throw them away and use screws instead.
You will need posts. Posts (wooden, t-posts or fiberglass) should be installed every 8 feet. When you are laying out your fence perimeter, be generous. The fence should be 4 feet from the hives. You do not want to encourage the bear to reach inside. Also, leave plenty of room for you to work in your bee yard! You will also need a gate to allow access.
Grounding rods are driven into the soil and attached to the grounding wires or terminal. The amount of grounding needed is determined by your soil composition and moisture. The bear must touch a hot wire and a ground wire for the zap to occur. Proper grounding is essential for good fence performance.
Beekeepers in Bear Country Have Special Considerations
If possible, avoid placing bees near the edge of the woods. Hives that are out in the open (300 ft) away from cover are less desirable.
Finding a bear in your bee yard is enough to make any beekeeper loose it. Know your state laws. In my state it often seems that the bears are more important than the beekeepers. Don’t put yourself in a position to face fines in addition to the sting of losing beehives.
No electric fence for bears is 100 percent guaranteed to work. When properly designed and installed, it can be a valuable tool to the beekeeper trying to live in harmony with other wildlife.
A little bear and bee love