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How is Honey Made?
One special little insect is known for it’s remarkable ability to produce a sweet substance we call honey. The ability of bees to produce this long lasting food source is key to their survival. Without ample food stores, the colony will not live through the long, cold Winter months. The story of how they accomplish this feat is a good one. So, how do bees make honey?
Producing a large quantity of food is no small task – especially for a tiny insect like a bee. The job requires the efforts of thousands of individuals.
During the warm months, new workers emerge daily. The relatively short lifespan of these bees, is only about 6 weeks.
As foragers age and die, a new work force must be constantly in the works. We value the strong work ethic of this industrious bee. Seeming to take no great concern for herself, she toils during the daylight hours to gather nectar from millions of flowering plants.
Why Bees Produce So Much Honey?
Why do bees store food inside the hive in such great quantities? Unlike many insects, including wasps etc, honey bees do not build seasonal nests that are abandoned once cold arrives.
Some members of the colony are living in the hive all year. When cold temps arrive, they are unable to fly and look for food.
Why not just store the plant nectar in the comb? Watery nectar would spoil, ripe honey remains edible over the long months of storage. A perfect food source for these cold blooded insects.
Worker Bees are Honey Makers
Female worker bees are responsible for food gathering and production. No one teaches them this task. This skill is just something that they are born knowing how to do.
That’s a good thing because workers only live about 6 weeks during the Summer. If each bee had to learn the process alone, they would have to be really good students.
Bees do not use pollen to make honey. However, bees do collect pollen. It is a vital protein source needed to rear baby bees.
Do All Bees Produce Honey?
Most bees species do not produce honey. Among the thousands of different types of insects in the world, most are solitary. Solitary bees do not live together as large social units. They have no need for large food stores.
While some species of insects do produce a bit of a sweet substance, none produce large stores of food for Winter. Only insects in the Scientific Genus Apis are true honey producers.
Bumble bees (Genus Bombus) make a small amount of a honey-like substance and store it in “pots” inside their nests. However the quantity is very small and not intended for long term storage.
How Bees Make Honey – Step by Step
- worker bees collect plant nectar
- nectar returns to the hive in their crop
- house bees add additional enzymes to the nectar
- sugars molecules change form during the process
- water content is reduced by dehydration
- placed in capped wax cells when ripe
Worker Bees Collect Plant Nectar
It is the female worker bee that collects plant nectar. As the worker bee flies from flower to flower, she sucks up plant nectar using her proboscis (a long straw-like mouth part).
An individual bee may visit up to 5,000 flowers in one day. And, foragers tend to visit the same type of flower while on a foraging trip. We call this flower fidelity and it aids in crop pollination.
Sometimes beekeepers place hives in large fields of a single nectar source, such as Orange Blossom. This is how we get a different type of honey. The bees concentrate on a single nectar source – at least for a while.
Bringing Nectar to the Hive
Bees have a special organ located in her abdomen directly before her natural stomach. This is the honey stomach or crop and is used to transport nectar.
In the crop nectar mixes with enzymes found in the bee’s saliva. This makes it easier to pass to her crop. When her crop is full, she will return to the hive with her bounty and give her load to a house bee.
Making Honey Inside the Hive
House bees, that are not old enough to forage, receive the incoming plant nectar from forager bees. As the nectar is passed from bee to house workers more enzymes are added.
They manipulate the watery nectar with their mouths adding an enzyme called –Invertase. As the process continues, the Ph and chemical composition of the nectar is changing. Glucose oxidase (another enzyme) is added along with the saliva.
Sugar molecules begin to change form and gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide are produced. These give honey its acidic and antibacterial properties. Now it is time for the dehydration process to being. Plant nectar is watery and the excess water must be removed.
Water Content is Decreased
A house bee releases a drop of the ripening nectar to her mandibles (jaw). (Similar to us blowing bubbles with bubble gum). Exposed to the warm, dry air inside the hive, the moisture content begins to drop.
Nectar that is in the drying (or moisture reduction ) process may be placed in droplets along the surface of comb and moved several times.
Bees fan with their wings to increase air flow through the hive. This aids in lowering the water content of the nectar.
When the moisture content of the nectar has dropped from about 80% to 20%, we consider the transformation to be complete.
Wax cells hold the stored food until it is needed. Each ripe cell is capped with wax to keep the food clean and safe.
Amount of Honey Produced by a Single Bee
An individual worker will only produce about 1/12 of a teaspoon of honey in her lifetime. This makes it easy to understand why a colony requires thousands of individuals to help in this important task.
Many different factors affect food production. Weather conditions, nectar availability and hive health all play a role in how much food is produced by the colony.
In a good foraging location, an average bee colony can make 60 pounds or more in a season.
Common Myths About Honey
Honey is not bee vomit – that is an ugly myth. A special structure inside the bee -called her crop holds the collected nectar. It is different from her regular digestive system. If she is hungry, she can open a special value and allow some nectar into her real stomach. The collected nectar is not in her true stomach.
A Final Word on How Honey is Made
For most regions, production is not a year-round thing. Bees must have blooming plants that are producing nectar. The colony may collect a bit of nectar at non peak times but not in sufficient quantities for serious honey production.
Nectar from millions of flowers and the efforts of thousands of colony members all go into the process of making and storing food for the hive.
Colony survival depends on sufficient food stores before Winter arrives. And with some luck, the beekeeper may get a share as well.