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Oxalic Acid Vaporization for Varroa Mite Control

Oxalic Acid Vaporization is one of the best tools available for beekeeper to use in the battle again varroa mites. A naturally occurring substance, oxalic acid provides an opportunity to step away from the use of synthetic chemicals in beehives. It has proven to be very effective at killing mites when used correctly with no damage to the honey bee colony.

Using Oxalic Acid Vaporization in Beehives

When varroa mites arrived in our country, the face of beekeeping changed forever.  These external parasites of honey bees weakened and killed thousands of colonies.

Many large bee companies went out of business and almost all of the feral or wild bee colonies died.  Since the mid 1980’s, the fight between varroa mites and beekeepers has raged on and on.

Varroa mites on bee brood and oxalic acid powder in vaporizer image.

One of the biggest challenges of varroa mite control is this: How do you kill a mite living on a bee? The honey bee and the mite share some common characteristics. 

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How can we kill the mite and not harm the bee?  What about chemical residues left behind in the honey and beeswax? Remember, humans eat products that are harvested from the hive.

What is Oxalic Acid?

Oxalic Acid is an organic compound that occurs naturally in nature. It is a white crystalline solid that is colorless in water. You will find it in such things as: peanuts, sweet potatoes, wheat bran and pecans.

Some oxalic acid occurs naturally in honey. And, because it is not fat soluble it does not build up in the beeswax comb.

But just because it is a natural organic compound, that does not mean it is not powerful. Oxalic acid is several thousand times stronger than vinegar.

It is bitter to the taste and irritating to the nose and mouth. Beekeepers should use proper protective wear when using this or any other acid.

Oxalic Acid (OA) has been used by European Beekeepers for many years. With reports of 90-99% efficacy in killing mites, they found it be a useful tool in the fight with varroa. It was only approved for use in the US in 2015.

Bee supply companies have product labeled for use in beehives. Some beekeepers use generics too. That is up to the discretion of the beekeeper.

How Oxalic Acid Kills Varroa Mites

We know that oxalic acid kills mites. It is about 70 times more toxic to varroa mites than honey bees.

But, there is still debate over the exact way mites are killed. Whether it is through inhalation of the vapor or direct contact with spiky dried crystals.

One theory is that the vapor enters through the soft pads of varroa mite feet and gets into their blood stream. It may also damage varroa mouth parts.

With vaporization we are not trying to coat the bees, rather we are injecting the heated vapor into the hive. As the vapor cools, small crystals are left behind on the bees, comb and hive walls. As worker foragers come and go-they will be exposed to the crystals.

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Either way, we do know that it kills varroa mites with minimal affects on the bees. There are (at this time) 2 approved methods of using oxalic acid for mite control

Beekeeper using syringe to apply dribble oxalic acid treatment to hive image.

Dribble Method of Using Oxalic Acid

In the dribble method of using oxalic acid, the acid is mixed with warm 1:1 sugar water (equal parts of sugar and water). Then, (using a syringe) the mix is applied between the frames in the hive – directly wetting the bees.

Care must be taken to not use more than a total of 50 ml per colony and of course you would adjust for smaller colonies.

Because the dribble method is hard on the cuticle (exoskeleton) of the bees’, it should only be done 2 times a year.

The bees need to be somewhat clustered together between the frames as well. This means that dribbling is best in cooler weather.

Vaporizing Oxalic Acid With a Heated Wand

The most popular method of using oxalic acid is – “oxalic acid vaporization“. A small amount of Oxalic Acid crystals are placed on a special wand.

The wand is inserted into the hive and heated to vaporize the crystals. There are many types of wands available to purchase. Some work great but are expensive, some are more affordable and work okay and others are pieces of “kaka”.

Varrox vaporizer with oxalic acid powder in the heating bowl image.

The wand I currently is called the Varrox from Oxavap. It has held up for many years and is still working great. A cheaper option can work well too – shop around before deciding. This one from Amazon is comparable.

When Should You Treat Bees With Oxalic Acid

It doesn’t really matter what time of day you do your oxalic acid treatment. But, very early morning or later in the day will expose more bees to the vapor quicker.

As for best time of year to treat, doing your mite counts is the only way to know the level of varroa infestation in your hives. However, oxalic acid vaporization is most effective when there is little or no brood in the hive. This is not always possible for Southern beekeepers.

  • late Fall or early Winter
  • before honey supers go on the hive in early Spring
  • for new hive splits with little capped brood
  • mid-late Summer (3 treatments required)

How to Treat Beehives with Oxalic Acid Vaporization

This is an overview of one way to use oxalic acid with a vaporizer in your bee yard.  Please use appropriate safety gear to protect your skin and lungs.  Do NOT inhale the vapor – do not.

Also, follow directions that come with your equipment and stay up to date with beekeeping periodicals. Bee stuff changes from time to time.

Materials Needed: Following all safety precautions as set forth on the Oxalic Acid label-proceed with the following materials.

  • safety gear – as directed on OA label (gloves and mask)
  • oxalic acid crystals ( 1 gram per brood box – approx 1/2 teaspoon)
  • oxalic acid vaporizer
  • power source for vaporizer
  • measuring spoon
  • timer
  • bucket with cool water (if your model allows cooling)
  • rags, old towel, etc – to use as temporary plugs
  • grid board – if you have screened bottom boards

You should keep most of your oxalic acid vaporization tools together. I use an old plastic cat litter container. Anything will work.

Oxalic Acid Vaporization Steps

  • insert grid board under screened bottom boards
  • remove hive top and loosely plug the hole in the inner cover
  • measure the required amount of oxalic acid and place on cold wand
  • slowly insert vaporizer wand into the front of the hive
  • lay an old towel (or similar) across the front
  • connect vaporizer to power source
  • set your timer (2.5 – 3 min?) time depends on vaporizer model
  • energize the vaporizer and stand upwind from the hive
  • at the end of the timer, let the vapor cool a few minutes before removing the wand
  • wait an additional 8-10 min before opening all the entrances and ventilation ports

Don’t forget to do another mite count a couple of weeks after the treatments to make sure it worked.

Towel shown blocking hive entrance and vapor escaping when wind blows towel away image.

Take care on windy days. A simple towel is fine as a temporary hive entrance block-but if the wind blows it off – your important vapors escape.

Oxalic Acid Vaporization With Brood Present

No varroa mite treatment is perfect. Oxalic acid treatments only kill phoretic mites. Those are the foundress mites that are riding around on the adult bees.

Most of the time, the majority of mites in a hive will be inside the capped brood. Oxalic Acid does not kill mites under the cap.

This is why the very best time to use OA is when the colony is broodless. For many Southern beekeepers, finding a natural treatment to use for mite control is very difficult.

Some of the other “softer mite treatments” are temperature sensitive. At the time of year when I really need to treat my colonies, it’s too hot to use some of the approved methods.

By the time the daily temps cool down, my colony may already be dead or so infested with mites that it has one foot in the grave.

To overcome this challenge, we do 3 vaporization treatments that are 4-6 days apart. In this way, as more mites emerge with new bees -most of the mites will be out of a cell and exposed to one of the treatments.

When treating the hives in cooler weather – I often am able to stick the wand through the largest opening of the entrance reducer. Less disturbance for the bees. But when you remove the wand – watch out!

Oxalic acid vaporizer wand inserted into the front of a hive image.

Safety Precautions When Using Oxalic Acid

Oxalic Acid is safe to use for the beekeeper and the bees as long as proper safety protocols are used.

Follow the instructions on the label – you will need a properly rated acid gas respirator. An N95 is the standard.

It is also a good idea to keep your bee smoker going in the bee yard. Watch the smoke and this will help you remain upwind of the hive and any leaking vapor.

Frequent Questions About Oxalic Acid Vaporization

What does the outside temperature have to be to use OA Vaporization?

As long as the outside temperature is at least 37° F for a couple of hours following treatment – you are good to go.

There is no high temperature threshold – I would say – as long as you don’t pass out in your bee suit!

Must you completely seal the beehive prior to vaporization?

It is not necessary to create a tight seal for the hive. If you have screened bottom boards – insert a grid during treatment.

Have something to temporarily close the hive entrance and any large openings – its just for a few minutes.

Will OA contaminate my hive and comb?

No, if you follow the directions and use the proper vaporization process no damage should occur to your comb or bees. Within a few days, the bees will remove all the remaining crystals from the hive.

Can I use OA vaporization with honey supers on the hive?

No, despite a ruling by the FDA regarding tolerable levels of OA in honey and comb, the EPA has not changed the approved label.

Until they do, the honey supers should not be left on the hive during vaporization. You can place a barrier between the honey supers and treatment boxes or simply remove the honey super for a few minutes.

Within 15 minutes of removing all the seals, it should be safe to return your honey boxes to the hive.

How long does it take to vaporize oxalic acid?

With a good wand, it should only take 2.5 – 3 minutes to vaporize your OA crystals.

How many times a year do you need to treat for varroa with oxalic acid?

This depends on several factors including the genetics of your bees and where you live.

Varroa mites are a bigger problem in some areas. Whenever you treat your colony, be sure to do another mite check in a couple of weeks to make sure it worked.

For now, there is no perfect way to kill the mites in your colony. All treatments have some effect (if only temporary) on the bees or the comb and honey inside.

But, doing nothing is not an option as varroa will eventually kill the colony. Oxalic Acid Vaporization is an effective way to manage varroa in your beehives.

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