How to Split A Beehive With Success
There will come a time in any beekeeper’s career that you need to split one of your bee hives. No, I don’t mean to literally split the hive in half. You want to divide the population of one large hive into 2 smaller ones. Learning how to split a beehive is an activity most often approached by a 2nd year beekeeper and beyond.
A simple process of taking 1 honey bee colony and dividing it into 2 may be done for a variety of reasons. When done properly, both “halves” of the colony will grow into productive beehives.
One of the most endearing things about honey bees is their focus on a common goal. It is the goal of the colony to store food and increase. In beekeeping, we work with these honey bee traits in order to reach our goals. Our goals may be honey production or pollination of gardens, orchards, etc.
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Splitting A Beehive-Why?
There are several reasons that a beekeeper might want to split beehives. One of the most common reasons is to take advantage of the bee colony’s Spring build-up and grow more hives. Beekeepers often want to increase the number of hives in their bee yards or apiaries. In this way they can replace any winter losses or just grow bigger!
Effective hive splitting is a way to increase hive numbers without having to buy bees. Bees can be purchased as package bees, nuc colonies or full-sized hives. But, buying bees is an expensive endeavor. You can easily spend hundreds or thousands of dollars.
A beekeeper who knows how to split a beehive can avoid the expense of buying bees. However, beehive splits much be performed correctly with proper followup.
Beehive Splitting to Avoid Swarms
Another reason to consider making a split is honey bee swarm prevention. The natural inclination of a honey bee colony is to grow into a huge population. It then splits itself into 2 smaller families and half the population leaves.
Swarming is a natural part of beekeeping. And, swarming is a good thing as far as colony reproduction. The honey bee colony is able to reproduce itself and make more colonies.
However, we beekeepers don’t like the idea of half a bee colony’s population flying away to create a new home. We would be happier if the bees stayed home and made honey. For the beekeeper with a large honey bee colony, splitting a hive to prevent swarming makes sense.
In this way, we have 2 smaller colonies to grow and become productive. You are splitting the hive before they split themselves.
Some beekeepers use the strategy of splitting hives as an opportunity to produce new queens. Queen-less splits will hopefully make a new young productive queen.
When we make a true split, one half will have to make a new queen (or be given one.) The temporary break in the brood cycle, provides a break in varroa mite reproduction. Some varroa mite treatments are more effective during a time of little or no brood.
When is The Best Time to Split a Beehive?
Spring is the optimum time for making beehive splits. It is a time of rapid grow for the honey bee colony. You can expect bee populations to be high and to see a large amount of brood inside the hive.
A common approach is to take advantage of the bees urge to swarming. After the colony has built up a large population with almost no room for more bees in the box, consider splitting. Large growing colonies with a lot of plants in bloom is an ideal time to split your hive.
When a bee colony gets too crowded, they will begin to make plans to swarm. If you see swarm cells during a mid-spring hive inspection, you must act.
Splitting a hive with queen cells is one of the easiest methods to use. Each half of the colony will receive either the old queen or a couple of nice large queen cells. If you really want to be adventurous and replace the old queen, you can place queen cells in both splits and destroy the old queen bee.
In some areas, beekeepers practice splitting a hive in July or Summer. The success of summer splits will depend on your location. It gets so hot and dry in my region, that splits made during summer require a lot attention and supplemental feeding.
It is difficult to get bees to draw comb after the first of July due to lack of nectar. I only make early Spring splits.
Must You Have 2 Bee Yards to Split a Hive?
Having two locations for bees is advantageous. When a beekeeper splits a beehive, they are often advised to locate the new split in another location. This is because any field bees that you move into the new box may not stay.
They will feel the urge to return to the original hive location. This results in your new split not having even bees to sustain itself.
If the new beehive split is moved 2 or more miles away, the field bees will reorient themselves to the new location. Now, you will be retaining your field force and increasing the chance of success for your split hive.
What if Relocating a Beehive to Another Field is Not an Option?
If you are unable to move your split to another location, a successful split can still be accomplished. I have never had another location to take new splits. You can do it but you need to pay a bit more attention to the new growing colony.
Shake in Extra Nurse Bees to the New Half
One option to increase splitting success is to shake extra nurse bees into the new split hive. Nurse bees have not been outside the beehive to forage. They are very concerned with the presence of brood.
When you create your new split, shake in extra nurse bees. This will be extra bees in addition to the bees on the frames with brood. Some of these bees will return to the original hive but some will stay with the brood in the new split.
Place New Split at Original Colony Location
Another method for same yard beehive splitting, regards hive location. Move the original beehive (usually with the old queen) to another hive stand in your bee yard. Be sure to leave frames of capped brood and all stages of larva in the hive. This hive will be losing its field force. As new brood emerges, they will become a new workforce.
Place the new split with queen cells (or eggs) at the old original hive location. This split normally has a smaller population inside. It will benefit from field bees returning to their home location. The worker bees return to the location – not necessarily the box itself.
How to Split a Beehive – The Basics
When splitting a beehive, its is important to remember that we are not really splitting the bees themselves. We are splitting the resources of the bee colony.
If you have a 10 frame beehive, most people take out 5 frames for the new split and leave 5 frames in the old hive. Fill in the remaining space with new frames, of course.
Each half will need to retain, honey, pollen, and brood. Most importantly, each half must have a queen or something to make a queen with. One half can retain the old queen.
The other half must have a frame or 2 of fresh eggs/larva. Honey bees can not make a good queen with older larva. Try to include a frame with fresh eggs and larva that are almost too small to see.
Beehive Splitting-When You Can’t Find the Queen
Sometimes, we absolutely can’t find our queen bees. Hey, that’s okay. It’s hard to find 1 bee in a hive of 60,000 stinging insects. That’s okay – this won’t prevent you from splitting your beehive.
Carefully, divide the resources of the hive. Again, making sure each half has fresh eggs. You can check back in 4 or 5 days and very carefully check for queen cell production. If you see queen cells, that is your queenless split.
Another method of hive splitting is the Doolittle method. This requires 2 trips to the hive but it allows you to make a split without finding the queen. It also has some advantages for those of you without another bee yard.
The Doolittle Method
Remove 5 frames of brood (some open and some capped) but no bees. Brush the bees off the frames of brood. Put them in a nuc box or extra hive body. Place a queen excluder on the top of the mother hive. Now put the box with the frames of brood (bee-less) on top of the excluder. (If you are using a nuc box – of course you will need a scrap piece of plywood etc to close up the hive.)
Over the next few hours, young nurse bees will move up through the excluder to cover the brood. Hopefully, the queen will stay below. You can now remove the new split and place it in its on location. Over the next day or so some of those nurse bees will become foragers and you can add a newly mated queen. These nurse bees were not foragers previously and they are less likely to return to the original hive.
Finishing the Process of Hive Splits
Reduce the Entrance For a While
Be sure to reduce the entrances of both beehive splits. You may choose to feed them as well. They have a lot of work to do before winter. The bee colony population must build up again. Comb must be drawn out on new frames and that takes a lot of energy and food.
Small colonies are often victims of robbing bees. Smaller entrances until the population grows will help combat this problem.
Those beekeepers who live in an area with Small Hive Beetles may consider hive beetle traps. I have had problems with small splits during Summer due to hive beetle predation.
Recheck for queens
If your beehive splits are making new queens, you must check to see that they are successful. Within 4-5 days after making a split, carefully check for queen cell development.
Just a careful peek, don’t overstay your welcome. Be care not to mash the cells. If they look good, recheck again in 2-3 weeks for a laying queen. I say carefully check within 4 or 5 days. Just a careful peek for queen cell building. Don’t overstay your welcome.
What is a Walk Away Split?
This term is so popular in the beekeeping community. It makes me laugh actually because I think people just like saying it. It is a common easy to use method for those wanting to learn how to split a beehive. But keep in mind that splits don’t always work. If you choose this method or any for that matter, rechecks are vital.
How to Make a Walk Away Split
Find 1 frame of fresh eggs, 2 frames of capped brood (some emerging) and 2 frames with honey and pollen. You will leave the nurse bees on these frames. Place the frames in a 5 frame nuc box or hive body.
Now, shake in extra nurse bees from the original colony. Be careful that you do not shake in your queen! Put the lid on and walk away. Check back in 4 weeks for a laying queen.
This works most of the time. It is not my favorite method. I would use it with some extras. I would feed the new split and I would not wait 4 weeks to check on the queen status. But, I guess that would not be a true walk away – would it?
Final thoughts on How to Split a Beehive
As with so many things in beekeeping, there are many ways to split your beehives. Is the walk away split best or a more monitored option? In reality, there is no one answer to the question, “How to split a beehive”.
Find a method that works for you and fine tune it until it works. And even then, not all splits will be successful. IF you monitor your new splits weekly, you should be able to see and correct any obvious problems.
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