Catching a Bee Swarm
If you have an empty beehive and no money for bees, it’s time to learn how to catch a bee swarm. Honey bee swarming is a natural activity for bee colonies. Any beekeeper who hears a swarm takes flight is filled with glee… as long as they didn’t come out of his/her bee yard. No matter the reason, we want to catch those bees.
Honey bee swarms are valuable to beekeepers. Normally containing anywhere from 10,000 to 25,000 bees, the swarm represents a new start.
If the beekeeper is able to collect the swarm, it has the capability to grow into a large productive colony. We do not want to lose those bees.
When to Look for A Swarm of Bees
You may find a swarm of honey bees at any time during the warmer months of the year. Spring is the most common time to see swarming.
This is a natural time of colony buildup. And, Spring swarms have the best chance of surviving due to abundant nectar and pollen.
The swarm normally leaves a hive on a warm, clear afternoon. The queen bee and about half the workers leave their colony to make a new home.
The mother hive is not left empty-though it may seem so to the casual observer. The original hive has queen cells – one of which will become the new queen of the colony.
Catching a Swarm of Wild Bees
We have 10,000 to 30,000 honey bees on the lose. How can you catch a swarm of wild bees?
Often, the term wild bees refers to those from a feral colony that is not managed by a beekeeper. However, let me say that bees are not domesticated.
The bees from your hives can be just as difficult to convince as those from a tree hive. The task of collecting them seems rather daunting, but relax, you don’t have to catch each individual bee.
Beekeepers have 2 basic opportunities to catch a swarm of honey bees.
- catch the bee swarm in it’s transition spot (tree)
- catch the swarm in a swarm trap or bait hive
When a honey bee swarm leaves the mother colony, they will gather somewhere nearby. They stay in this swarm transition location for a few hours or maybe overnight.
This is the beekeeper’s moment of opportunity to catch the bees easily. And, often it is done without any type of honey bee trap.
But you should have a few swarm traps scattered around the area surrounding your bee yard – 50 ft or more away.
If the swarm chooses one of your traps, you are more assured of having a successful catch. Sometimes bees choose some really unusual swarm transition places.
Swarm Season Equipment
Always be ready during swarm season for another colony. I can’t tell you how many beekeepers have lost swarms simply due to lack of equipment!
Always have an extra-deep hive body, bottom board and top with frames and foundation prepared. Or, at least have a similar hive configuration that will provide a temporary home for a swarm.
If you want something portable to keep on hand, consider one of the cardboard nuc boxes. They fold flat and can be stored in the car or behind a truck seat. For years, I carried a nuc box, small bee smoker and veil in my car.
Honey Bee Swarms are Not Aggressive
Generally a bee swarm is not aggressive. One can be hanging quietly in a tree nearby without you knowing it. Once the swarm takes flight, you will hear a very loud buzzing roar.
While not aggressive, swarm bees can and will sting if they feel threatened. In the process of manipulating the swarm, stings can happen.
The bees do not know your good intentions. And, they may take being shook out of a tree personally. Wear your protecting beekeeper clothing – at least a hat and veil!
Checking the Bee Yard for Swarms
Beekeepers have a special task to perform during the warm season – especially during Spring. Walk out around your bee yard (or apiary) every afternoon.
Look up into the surrounding bushes and trees. You may see a swarm that is quietly hanging within reach. Or perhaps, you will find one 50 feet up – that’s frustrating.
Most honey bee swarms leave the hive between 10 AM and 2 PM. They usually stay in the transition spot for a few hours at least. Perhaps they are still there!
Collecting Swarms That are Easy to Reach
In a few hours – or much less, the swarm leaves to journey to their new home. Sometimes, the swarm will spend the night in the tree and go to their new home the next day.
But, if we did not see them come out of the mother hive, we don’t know how long they have been hanging there. Don’t delay.
A low hanging swarm may be collected by simply shaking it into a box – or a bucket that you can pour into a hive. Yes, some bees will fly out but that’s okay – you only need the queen.
How to Catch A Swarm Bees In A Tree
Retrieving a bee swarm from a tree is massive amounts of fun. You can do it, I have many times.
Success depends on timing, patience and a bit of luck. Yes, pure dumb luck plays a part.
Will that swarm set down in a small tree less than 6 feet off the ground? Or, will they choose that tall Sweet Gum tree about 30 feet up in the air? That’s the part about needing good luck.
You won’t be able to catch every swarm. Please don’t risk your life trying to reach bees that are dangerously high up.
For some of you, it will be as simple as shaking the ball of bees into a new hive box or even a cardboard box for transport.
Getting a Swarm Out of a Tree
The lucky beekeeper will have a swarm land at a low height – in a nearby tree or bush. Low hanging swarms are the delight of any beekeeper.
Place an empty hive box (with bottom board) on the ground under the swarm. The hive top should be off but close by.
I generally like to remove about half of the frames to give more room for the bees. The remaining frames will be placed in the box soon.
Give the limb a sharp shake and the bees will fall in or near the box. If the queen bee falls in the box, the other bees will join her.
After an initial shake, I put the remaining frames in the box and place the top back on.
If the rest of the swarm does not go in the box within 15-20 minutes, you missed catching the queen. You may need to shake the tree again!
It is natural to have some concern about hurting the bees with this method. I too have had a concern over this.
But honestly, I have rarely noticed any problem with the “shake’m out” method.
When I have the choice and find the bees on a low limb that I can cut, I do that instead. Then a gently lower the mass of bees into the hive body and shake the cluster off.
How to Collect a Bee Swarm Out of Reach
When I have a swarm that is just beyond reach, I am often able to get them with some help. A swarm retrieval aid helps me reach a swarm located just a bit too high up.
There are many ways to make a retrieval aid. A long telescoping pole with a bucket at the end is my own homemade contraption. I attached a hinge to the end of the pole and then a plastic kitty litter bucket.
This allows the bucket to swing and I can bump the swarm inside – then quickly lower the bucket to retrieve the swarm.
Using Swarm Traps or Bait Hives
Bee traps, swarm traps, bait hives – call them what you will. They are a fun way to catch honey bee swarms. Even better, traps can catch bees while you are away at work!
I have had a simple swarm trap in a tree for years. It is located over the hill (it’s all hills here folks) from my apiary (bee yard). It catches swarms most years.
If you look closely, you will see a little wooden box located near the trunk of this tree. It is about 6 feet off the ground and supported by a wooden arm.
A swarm trap can be made of different materials but my favorite is an old beehive box. You can also construct a box (at least the size of a deep super box) or purchase a commercial swarm trap.
Swarm Lures Increase Swarm Catching Success
Honey bees are very sensitive to scent. We want to attract a honey bee swarm to this box and that begins with enticing the scout bees.
Place a few drops of Lemon Grass essential oil inside your swarm trap or purchase a commercial swarm lure.
I include some Swarm Commander lure in my bait hives. If the majority of the scouts like my bait hive, the swarm might decide to move in! How cool is that!
When to Move the Captured Swarm
You will know if your bait hive was successful in catching the swarm. You should see a steady stream of foragers going in and out of the hive entrance.
Now, it is time to complete the capture by moving the bee swarm to a permanent beehive. Some beekeepers like to leave the swarm in the bait hive several weeks.
I prefer moving my bees into a hive within a few days. After sitting a new hive box near the capture box, I move the swarm into it.
For example, if the trap box is in a tree – I set an empty hive at the base of the tree. Move frames or shake the bees into the new hive and temporarily move the bait box away. This is so foragers will not be attracted to it.
Leaving the hive sitting beside the tree until after dark, ensures that all of the foragers will be inside. Once it is dark, I transport the new swarm hive back to the apiary.
Some obstructions are placed in front of the hive entrance. This can be something as simple as a couple of small tree limbs with leaves. (Anything, a desperate beekeeper comes up with.) I do not block the entrance completely.
My reasoning is that as the bees leave the hive the next morning, they will stop and investigate.
Hopefully, this triggers some reorientation and helps them return to the proper location.
Final Thoughts on Catching a Bee Swarm
In general, swarms are not dangerous and there is no reason for fear. The public needs to give them respect and space. Many times the swarm will move on the next day.
Learning how to catch a swarm of bees is one of the “rites of passage” for beekeepers. This represents free bees that would otherwise be lost.
Most feral “wild” colonies will succumb to mites, disease or starvation within 2 years.
Swarm capture also prevents the beekeeper from having to buy honeybees to go in a new hive.
Face it, you will not catch every swarm. Try to be a good sport and wish them well as they fly away.