Attracting Honey Bee Swarms
Swarming honey bees is one of the most exciting aspects of beekeeping. This is especially true for new beekeepers. Many of us strive to minimize swarming of our honey bee colonies. However, the bees have a different agenda. Swarms will happen. Giving some thought to attracting honey bee swarms is part of a good beekeeping plan.
Most bee colonies swarm during good weather when a lot of forage is available. For my region, I see the most swarms during late March, April and through the month of May.
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Popular Swarm Attracting Aids
However, honey bee swarming can happen at any time during the “reproductive season”. The reproductive season in South Carolina is from March thru September or October. These are the months when brood is being produced and drones are in the hive.
Do I ever see honey bee swarms in February or late October? You bet! Never try to say what bees will or will not do, they will prove you wrong. Warmer than normal weather in early Spring can speed up swarming. Fall swarms are not uncommon either.
Scout Bees Are the Realtors of The Bee World
Scout bees are given the task of searching out a new home for the swarm. Weeks before the old colony swarms, the scouts begin to investigate possible new homes. Some of the scout bees may even spend the night in a potential nest site. It’s rather like a sleep-over!
When you see an increasing number of scout bees near swarm trap. That is a good sign and may indicate a swarm arrival soon.
My Solution to Attracting Honey Bee Swarms
Choosing an Attractive Swarm Trap
Much research has been done regarding the best type of bait box and its location. Thomas Seeley covered this subject in great detail in his book, Honeybee Democracy. This is a good read for any beekeeper. But, regardless of what studies show, the bees will often surprise us and “do their own thing”.
We can find bee swarms residing in many different locations. From the expected, perfect size and height swarm trap to the unused gas grill on your neighbor’s porch. You just never know.
My favorite type of swarm trap is an old hive body. A used hive body has the smell of bees! Old wax and propolis scent remains in the wood. A bee has a much stronger sense of smell than us. They can smell wax from far away.
I like to use a solid bottom. Bees like darkness inside their hive. A tight-fitting top that can be easily removed (with screws-not nails) and a small 1-inch hole drilled about 2 inches up from the bottom.
Some beekeepers like to use beehive traps made out of a pulp-like material. They come in a variety of shapes and sizes. It is not a long lasting solution but they are lightweight and easy to handle.
Best Location to Catch Swarms
Many people get overly-concerned about the height of a trap to catch swarms. As I mentioned before, bees tend to do what they want. I have had great success in catching swarm in traps less than 10 feet off the ground. Be safe.
Getting the swarm trap up in the tree is one thing. Will you be able to get it down with 10-20 pounds of weight inside?
You will have a better chance of attracting honey bee swarms if your trap is in a shaded location. A tree at the edge of the forest line is a good choice. If you catch a swarm, replace the trap. I have caught several swarm with the same trap over a season.
The Best Lure to Attract A Honey Bee Swarm
One of the most reliable methods of catching a swarm of bees is to lure them with scent. Do you have an old frame of used honeycomb? The smell of wax will encourage scout bees to check out the location.
In my experience, I have had better luck using just 1 old frame with comb in my hive body trap. When I fill the box with frames, I caught fewer swarms. So, I put one frame in the box and lightly tack it to the side (this is so it won’t move and squeeze bees when I am getting it down).
This method requires you to monitor the swarm trap often. When the bees move in, they will begin to build honeycomb from the top of the box. I don’t expect them to use the old frame, it is just there for scent.
Other beekeepers like to use 1 frame with old comb and fill the rest of the space with empty frames. The empty frames contain a small 1-inch strip of beeswax foundation in the top wedge. This method preserves the feeling of space while encouraging the bees to build within the frames.
Catching A Bee Swarm with a Commercial Lure
Many beekeepers chose to use a commercial swarm lure to attract honey bee swarms. This is especially helpful if you do not have an old hive box or used honeycomb.
Honestly, I use both old comb and lure. My current favorite is one called Swarm Commander. I use the liquid form and dabble a few drops at the trap entrance. Repeated every 2-3 weeks.
An Outline for Attracting Honey Bee Swarms
1. Place your swarm trap 3-4 weeks before the Spring nectar flow
2. Use a large container – (old hive body) with a solid floor and top
3. Drill a small hole for the opening. It is easily defensible.
4. An old piece of honeycomb attracts scout bees
5. You may also use a commercial swarm lure
6. Check Your Swarm Trap Often
Why Do Beekeepers Want to Attract Swarms?
Beekeepers enjoy setting up bait hives or swarm traps. Why?
Well if one of my hive swarms, I would like to catch them before they leave my property. And if a wayward swarm passes through from somewhere else, I would like to catch it too! A swarm that did not come out of my hive. Free Bees!
A little bit of bee love…