Imagine the heartbreak of going out to your hive to check on your newly hived bees and they are gone! Months of planning and expense has flown away over the hilltops. This is especially upsetting for beginner beekeepers. This situation is more common with package bees or freshly captured swarms. However, maybe these tips will help you keep new bees from leaving your hive this year.
New Colonies More Likely to Leave
When the unthinkable happens and a new beekeeper finds a hive empty, it is natural to blame yourself. Beekeepers do make mistakes whether you are new to keeping bees or have years of experience.
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Did you do something that caused your new bees to leave the hive you gave them? Yes, it is possible. But, that is not always the case.
In spite of years of bee research, we still do not totally control them. They are wild insects with life plans that may not match our goals.
Honey Bees Leave Their Hive Everyday
Being outside the hive is nothing new to our bees. They don’t spend their entire lives sitting inside the hive. Some honey bees leave their hive every day.
These worker bees spend the day foraging for supplies needed by the colony. Fortunately, most of them make it back to the hive.
Still, these highly social insects favor home and family. Being together in a group is the natural way of life. They are willing to give their lives to defend the colony.
When Bees Leave the Hive for Good
There are a couple of situations where bees leave the hive for good.
Honey Bee Swarming
Swarming is a natural occurrence in honey bees. When a colony grows strong, it may “cast a swarm”. This can happen any time during the warm season but Spring is the most common swarm season.
A bee swarm usually involves about half the population of the colony leaving to start a new home in another location. But, the remainder of the colony stays in the original mother hive.
The mother hive retains some of the colony population, food stores, developing brood and a new queen being reared.
Whole Colony Absconding
When a complete colony of bees suddenly leaves, we call this absconding. In absconding, no or very few bees remain in the hive. This is usually due to pest issues or other conditions that the bees dislike.
There may be a few left-over members of the colony that were late to mature or unable to fly. However, the hive is basically empty. Thankfully, this does not happen often.
Reasons Package Bees Leave
Having a newly captured swarm leave your bee box is disappointing. But, it is especially disturbing to lose a new package of bees. They are not inexpensive and thus your $100 or more is suddenly gone!
Often, we never know for certain why the bees decided to look for better accommodations. But we do know of a few triggers that seem to play a role in package bees leaving their hive.
- frequent disturbance by beekeeper
- equipment with paint smell or odor
- poor location that bees don’t like
- extra queen in a package
- fussy bees
An overzealous beekeeper checking inside the hive several times a week to “see what’s happening” may cause the bees to feel unsafe. There is no reason to open a hive every day – or every other.
Inspect when you have a reason, be gentle and don’t linger. This is especially important for new colonies that do not yet have a good pattern of bee brood in the hive.
Did you assemble and prepare your equipment well ahead of installing the new colony? Beekeeping equipment painted at the last minute -still smells strongly of fumes. Bees are very sensitive to smell.
If everything else is good, location doesn’t seem to play a major role in bees leaving. But, if something nearby is a constant irritation-there have been reports of hives becoming empty. Honestly, this is not as common falls under the category of we just don’t know why.
Extra Queen in the Package
Package bees are not true swarms. Commercial bee packages are made by shaking excess workers (and drones) from large populous colonies.
Bee farm staff remove the queen from the populous colonies before shaking. But, sometimes mistakes happen.
If you have a loose queen, (in addition to the protected one that comes with your package) it is possible that the bees may just decide to leave.
Don’t over-stress about this. It is not a common occurrence but it is one possibility for why package bees are gone the next day.
Package Bees Release the Queen and Leave
Your new package of bees is installed and everything looks okay. The next morning, you see bee flight in front of the hive. Bees bringing in colorful balls of pollen on their hind legs. All is well in the bee yard.
Then, a few days later you notice a lack of bee flight. You open the hive to find “NOTHING”. All of the bees are gone – including the queen bee that has been released from the cage!
Thankfully, this doesn’t happen a lot either but it is more likely to happen if the queen is released too quickly.
And sometimes, things happen that the beekeeper can not control such as having bees that are just unhappy about being moved and are anxious to travel. These fussy bees just refuse to settle in.
Tips to Discourage New Bees From Leaving
- don’t rush queen release-let the bees release her slowly
- prepare/paint equipment 2 weeks before bees arrive
- give new colonies 1 frame of brood from another hive if possible
- feed new bees so they feel the location will support them
- limit hive inspections to once per week
- reduce hive entrances to 2″ or less – so the bees feel safe
- if using screen bottom boards-consider leaving the grid board in for a few weeks
Don’t Release the Queen too Quickly
Most beekeepers (myself included) allow the queen bee to be released naturally. The queen cage will have a white candy substance in one end.
Over the first few days (3-5) the bees eat the candy and allow the queen to exit. This time period gives the colony time to get used to the queen’s pheromones and accept her.
Paint and Assemble Equipment Well in Advance
Prepare your beehive weeks before your new bees arrive. Make sure your box doesn’t smell funky.
Painting the hive and any gluing of parts should be completed a couple of weeks before you install bees. This gives nasty odors time to dissipate.
Give New Colonies a Frame with Brood
Do you have other beehives in your bee yard? Can you “borrow” a frame with a little brood.
If you have access to a frame of brood (baby bees) this is a big plus. Honey bees are very serious about raising young. This is one of the best ways (and my favorite) to keep bees in the hive.
It is rare for bees to leave healthy brood. If you are a new beekeeper without other hives, maybe you can buy a frame of brood from another beekeeper.
Feed New Colonies to Encourage Build Up
Most new colonies can benefit from some feeding – at least in the beginning. Feeding package bees can be especially helpful for the young colony.
While their population is low, they will not have as many foragers. Having plenty of food for the growing hive help promote a sense of stability.
Limit Beehive Inspections at First
Resist the temptation to open the hive too much during the first weeks of colony life. The bees need time to settle and feel safe.
Once the queen is laying and brood is being reared, package bees (or swarms) are less likely to leave the hive.
Reduce Entrances on New Colonies
In nature, bees tend to prefer nesting sites with smaller openings. This is due to their need to defend the hive against predators.
Reducing your hive entrance to a smaller opening is beneficial for a new colony. This helps the bees feel safe in their home. And prevents other bees from trying to steal from your feeder.
Use the Grid Insert Below Screened Bottom Boards
Honey bees are very adaptable but in nature they would not normally live in a cavity with an open bottom. If you are using screened bottom boards, slide the grid board in for a couple of weeks until the bees settle into their new home.
I have never had a problem when leaving the screened bottom open with a new package of bees. However, it doesn’t hurt to put that grid in for a while – just in case.
Using an Excluder
Locking the queen up inside the hive is a technique that some beekeepers use with success. A strip of metal queen excluder is attached to the front of the hive for a few days. Once the bees have settled in, it is removed.
I am not a fan of this method. First of all, sometimes young small queens can get through the excluder.
Also, the excluder traps drone bees inside or outside of the colony. I don’t use this method in my apiary. It seems rather inhospitable.
In beekeeping, we don’t always understand bee behavior. Do your best but don’t beat yourself up over failures.
The more you learn, the better beekeeper you will become. Strive to make the bees feel safe, give them time to settle in and you will increase your chances of preventing your bees from leaving their new hive.