How to Clean Beeswax

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Learning how to clean beeswax may sound difficult-but it really is not. Wax can be cleaned with some simple materials you probably already have around the house. When beekeepers gather wax from the hive, it is mixed in with honey and other substances. Before using raw wax for your crafting projects, we need to clean it.

Pan of beeswax cappings ready to clean .

No matter the project, the first step to having clean wax is processing. Sometimes called rendering beeswax, this process cleans out any debris. Once it is cleaned, the possible ways to use beeswax are endless.

How to Process Beeswax

One of the most popular ways to use beeswax involves making candles. Beeswax candles require very clean wax to burn well-otherwise the wick will clog.

The wax may look clean but it can contain substances that prevent a clean burning candle.

So where does this beeswax come from – do bees gather it? No, this natural wax is made by honey bees using special glands on the underside of their abdomen.

As the wax scales are produced, workers use their mouths and legs to shape each one. Eventually, they end up up thousands of hexagonal cells that make up honeycomb.

Beekeepers harvest wax that is left over from honey extraction, scrapings from boxes, and colonies that die. If a lot of wax is taken from the hives, the result is less honey production for the year.

Therefore, it is a valuable hive by-product and sells for more per pound than honey. Raw wax should never be wasted.

Rendering wax is just another term for cleaning. It means the same thing and that word was used more frequently in years past.

Fresh raw wax can contain: dirt, honey, wood splinters, propolis, pollen, bee cocoons left behind by honey bee brood rearing, etc. These impurities make the wax unsuitable for some projects.

Once the wax is clean, it is good for making beeswax candles, lip balm, furniture polish and many other crafts.

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How Beekeepers Harvest Beeswax

  • cleaning cappings wax
  • wax left over from crush and strain

Once the beekeeper harvests the honey crop, the wax and honey are usually separated. Unless, the beekeepers wants to sell chunk honey or sections of comb.

Beekeepers using a honey extractor are able to reuse most of the wax in the frames. However, they still must cut off the cappings of each cell.

Cappings are made from the freshest wax so they will be light colored beeswax. Spending less time in the hive, cappings wax has less time to absorb stains from honey, pollen, propolis and thousands of little bee feet stomping around on the comb.

Crush & Strain Honey Harvest Produces More Wax

Beekeepers who do not use an extractor to harvest honey have more excess wax. They crush the entire piece of honeycomb-freeing the golden liquid inside.

There is a tradeoff for this method of honey harvesting though. The beekeeper gets more wax but may face a reduced honey crop next year.

This is because the colony must rebuild all of the honeycomb in the frame – not just a new cap. This requires more time and more food for the worker bees. 

Cleaning Raw Beeswax (for Beekeepers)

  1. collect excess beeswax – (cappings or crushed comb)
  2. drain any good honey from the wax – cappings hold a lot
  3. rinse beeswax in cool clean water – not your kitchen sink!
  4. melting is the next step for cleaning – I use water
  5. pour clean wax through a filter bag (such as nylon curtain pieces or cheesecloth or sweatshirt material
  6. leave your clean wax to cool in some type of flexible container

Remove Cappings

Beekeepers use an electric hot knife (or a cold knife warmed in hot water) to slice the wax cap off the frame of honey.

If you only have a couple of boxes to harvest, it’s fun. Once you have 10 or more boxes, it’s work!

Beekeeper removing bees wax cappings from honey frame image.

Separating Beeswax from Honey

Fresh cappings are sticky. The amount of honey in the cappings can be quite significant and worth saving. There are 2 common methods of separating the wax and honey.

  • uncapping tank or double bucket system
  • use a filter bag

Double Bucket System

I often use a 2 bucket process to separate my beeswax from honey. You can purchase a commercial uncapping tank that does the same thing or make your own.

A tall 5 gallon bucket is the base. A slightly shorter bucket close to the same diameter is placed inside the large bucket.

Because of the top rims of both buckets, this usually results in a space of several inches being open in the bottom of the larger bucket. This is the collection space for honey.

The smaller bucket has many holes drilled in the bottom. Cut cappings (or crushed comb) are collected and placed in top bucket with holes.

Any remaining honey drips down into a clean chamber. Left to drain overnight – most of the honey drips through into the bottom container. Of course, this is done inside my honey house where no bees can get in.

A mass of clean beeswax cappings in a bucket image.

Use a Filter Bag

If you don’t have 2 buckets of the proper size, you can use a filter bag (or strainer bag) to hold the wet cappings.

When using a strainer bag, place the cappings in the bag. You can buy honey strainer bags, use paint bags or make your own with cheese cloth.

Suspend it over a clean bucket that will catch the residual honey. This clean honey can be used as long as you practice good hygiene .

Nylon bag with crushed beeswax cappings and honey hanging above bucket for cleaning image.

Warning – the bag will be heavy! Tie the bag to something sturdy enough to handle the weight. This must be done in a warm, bee tight location.

With either method, most of the honey will be drained out by the next day. The time needed will depend on the amount of honey remaining in your wax and the temperature of the room.

Wash the Cappings Wax

After most of the residual honey has dripped out, the cappings are still sticky. As part of my cleanup regime, I like to rinse the stickiness out of the cappings wax.

Large strainer bags with a coarse mesh are very useful for washing cappings as it holds them together.

Only use cool clear water. It is as simple as placing your cappings in a bucket and adding water ( similar to washing green beans). 🙂

Place a clean strainer bag in a 5 gallon pail – then add wax. Fill 3/4 of the bucket with cool water and hand wash the wax .

When you think you have most of the honey out, grab the top of the filter bag and lift – allowing the water to drain out of the clean wax cappings.

And for heavens sake don’t wash them in your kitchen sink! How do you spell clogged drain?  One way is B-E-E-S-W-A-X.

Letting Your Bees Clean Your Wax

The practice of letting the bees clean the cappings in the open is practiced by some beekeepers. They spread the cappings out on a flat surface outside and let the bees find and clean them.

The value of this method is that the bees are making use of every bit of honey. Also, it is frightening and fascinating to watch. However, this plan is not without serious risks to your bees.

There is a danger of this activity causing robbing back at the hive – even if the cleaning takes place a far distance away.

I never put out wet cappings for cleaning. If you choose to do so, be sure to place the wet cappings as far away from your bee yard as possible.

Cleaning Beeswax (for Crafters)

Cleaning raw wax with water is my final step in preparing wax for candle making. When you clean or melt your beeswax in water, you are removing any remaining trash or excess honey.

Raw beeswax is often sold in larger cakes or a wax disc, luckily wax is brittle when cold – you should be able to hit it with a hammer and break off chunks.

If you are a crafter, who is purchasing raw wax from a beekeeper, I suggest you repeat this step of a water bath. It is very helpful to remove any remaining residues.

This method works so well because liquid wax floats on top of water. When the liquid wax cools, you have clean wax on top and dirty water below.

It is important to remember that you do not want to overheat your beeswax. Too much heat will reduce the nice aroma and darken the color.

There is no need to bring it to a boil. The wax has a low melting point that is well below 200°F.

Boiling water in the large pot on the bottom is okay, as long as, it does not splash out too much.

Also beeswax is flammable. At a temperature of about 400° F, it will flare and burn. **Be careful – always take proper precautions to prevent burns and fire**

People can and do use a microwave to melt beeswax but I do not recommend it. The opportunity for overheating, fire or a very big mess is too great.

Likewise, it is safer to use a heat source without an open flame. An electric burner is a bit safer than a gas stove with open flames.

Can you melt beeswax in the oven? Yes, but the risk of a big mess and overheating could be an issue. The heat should be at the lowest possible setting and constant surveillance is needed.

Chunks of raw beeswax ready to melt and clean with water image.

Melting Beeswax in a Double Boiler

A double boiler is the safest method for melting beeswax. You have 1 pot on the stove that contains water.

A smaller pot sits inside the water pot and holds your wax. This water bath method is the safest option.

This allows the heat to be transferred from the water to spread uniformly around the pot holding your wax. You have less chances of over heating the wax or causing a fire!

If you don’t have a double boiler, one of these inserts can help you create one. I have several of these- they are awesome for projects.

Once the wax is liquid, carefully pour it through a straining material. Use cheese cloth, nylons, paint strainers or old sweatshirt material for straining.

If you quickly wipe out the warming pot with paper towels – it will remove most of the wax. But, you need to have dedicated utensils, dishes or pots for wax work.

Cooling And Storing Beeswax For Later

You can pour your liquid wax into any type of mold. I like to use recycled takeout cups because when the wax cools and shrinks, it pops out easily.

Cooled wax will NOT easily come out of any type of container use something that is flexible. Leave your wax to cool and harden over night.

How to Clean Wax in a Solar Melter

Melting beeswax in a solar melter is a common practice. My larger solar wax melter is made from an old steel box with a heavy piece of glass on top. It is really ugly and looks gross but it does the job well.

Cappings are placed into a pan inside the box, a tray with a small amount of water collects the dripping wax. Over a couple of days the heat of the sun will melt all the cappings. 

As temperatures drop, the wax will cool into solid form in the tray. Once cooled, I can remove the solid chunk and discard any water.

The water will be dirty and have honey residue – do NOT feed it to your bees. It may make them sick.

If you only have a small amount of cappings, you may choose to use a home-made melter. You can make your own solar melter.

Using an inexpensive Styrofoam cooler and a sheet of glass, the melter is set in a sunny location. At the end of the day, you will have rendered clean beeswax.

If you want to a larger solar melter – its easy. You can find many plans and instructions for other types of wax melters.

Clean Beeswax – Endless Possibilities

Sweet smelling beeswax is perfect to use in many different projects. You can even make your own beeswax crayons – a great non toxic item for the kids.

Unique and beautiful beeswax candles with dried flowers and other lovely products.

Another project that is simple and only requires a small amount of material – try making your own bees wax melts. You can customize their scent with fragrances.

In Closing

Cleaning raw beeswax is not difficult, it only requires a bit of patience. And the best thing is that your beeswax will never spoil so you don’t have to be in a hurry. Now that you have a chunk of nice beeswax – anything is possible.