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How to Build a Beehive of Your Own

Are you interested in learning how to build a beehive? Many new beekeepers want the total beekeeping experience from start to finish. After ordering their new bees and purchasing most of their tools and protective wear, they yearn to build their own bee boxes. This is an obtainable goal for those of you with some carpentry experience. However, there are few important details that you need to know.

Make a Beehive for Your Bees

Person building a beehive from scratch image.

One of the most important aspects of hive construction is having a plan. Properly built beehives require attention to detail and correct measurements.  

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Building a bee hive is NOT the same as building a bird house or even a dog house.  Beekeeping equipment should be built to a closer standard. We must strive to give the bees what they want.

Honey bees are very discerning about their home structure. Yes, honey bees will often take up residence in the most unusual places-that’s true. 

Why they want to avoid my perfectly awesome hive for some tree in the woods – who knows? But poorly constructed beehives cause problems for the beekeeper later on.

Easier Hive Management With Proper Bee Boxes

A beekeeper must practice some hive management techniques in order to have healthy productive colonies. Checking for signs of queen failure or disease help insure colony survival.

Routine inspections are also made to check for problems with pests such as: Small Hive Beetles or Wax Moths. They can cause colonies to become weak and even hive failure.

In order to know what is happening inside the hive, you have to look. Hives that are not constructed to the proper measurements make inspections much more difficult.

Don’t feel that making your own beehive is something you must do. The first year of beekeeping can be confusing. Unless you are a skilled carpenter that loves woodworking – save hive construction for another year.

Homemade Bee Boxes Require Some Skill

Building a beehive requires an investment of time and money. I wanted to build a beehive from scratch when I first became a beekeeper.

Unfortunately, my enthusiasm for this project was greater than my carpentry skills.  (Even though in the past I could do some pretty good work with a hammer and nail!)

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I was successful at building boxes for several hives and some are still in use today.  They don’t look the best in the world and I don’t want my engineer husband to look at them but the bees don’t seem to care.

While my hive components may not look pretty, I did pay attention to details that really matter to bees (correct inside measurements – need for ventilation, etc). But even then, I made some costly mistakes.

Did I save myself any money by building my hives during those first years when beekeeping costs are high? No, it would have been much cheaper to buy the components and do the assembly myself.

Bee Space Matters

Modern beehive plans are based on the concept of “bee space”. This is the amount of space that bees naturally leave between the honeycombs. 

In general, the measurement of 3/8″ is considered bee space. Today’s bee hive plans will be developed with respect to this measurement.

Whether building the parts or buying them, assemble your hive parts correctly, paying special attention to inside measurements in your instructions. 

As the bees build out honeycomb, they want the hive to be filled in a precise way. If your bee boxes are build to the wrong dimensions, you will have problems with comb where you don’t want it. This is called burr comb.

Ignore these called for measurements and your bees may leave or make such a mess with honeycomb in the wrong places. Then, you can not inspect them properly.

Failure to build a honey bee hive of the proper dimension resulting in poor comb building image.
Failure to build a honey bee hive of the proper dimensions causes strong comb to be built.

Choosing a Type of Beehive to Build

Once you decide what you want, it is easy to find plans to build a beehive. Also, you do not have to build every component and I suggest you don’t try.

Many new beekeepers purchase the top cover, bottom board and inner cover but enjoy building the main supers or bee boxes. You can’t have too many boxes as you are sure to need one in a pinch.

If you have extras on hand, that comes in handy when it is time to add another super to the hive. Or, when you catch your next swarm.

There are many different types of honey bee hives in use around the world. In the US, the most common beehive design is the Langstroth Hive (10 frame or 8 frame).  This is the standard configuration of stacked boxes.

Another design with an enthusiastic following is the Top Bar Hive.  They were originally popular in third world countries where modern hive components were not available.

The top bar and other horizontal hives have gained some popularity in the US. Management of this type of hive is a bit different – do your research before deciding.

Stacked boxes of a langstroth hive with bees.

Langstroth Beehive

The Langstroth Hive is a square bee box that typically holds 10 frames. (The use of 8 frame Langstroth hives is popular in some regions.) After starting with a basic box, more are stacked on top as the colony grows.

Today, most commercial beekeepers use this type of hive design. Langstroth hives can be  easily stacked on trucks for transport. The Langstroth Hive is the common choice for beekeepers who want to produce honey.

Are you more interested in bee culture or pollination than honey harvesting?  A top bar hive might be the right choice for you. 

Large top bar hive for keeping bees image.

Top Bar Beehive

The Kenyan Top Bar (TBH) was designed to replace log hives in Africa. This simple hive design requires less lumber and no special tools to assemble.  (Yet they are expensive to purchase from bee suppliers – ? )

Top Bar Hives have increased in popularity in recent years.  Some beekeepers feel this hive design is a more organic approach to beekeeping because bees build their own comb.

You may produce some honey in a hive of this style. But, top bar hives are not usually associated with large honey harvests.

If you decide to try top bar beekeeping, it is important to connect with other top bar beekeepers who are successful.  Check out this advanced top bar beekeeping information.  -> ->  Top Bar Beekeeping Book <- <-

After deciding which kind of hive you want to use, check out some good books like – Building Hives for Dummies. It gives you measurements but also tips for assembly, wood choices etc.

Fortunately, the internet is full of free plans for building beehives.  So I see no need to re-invent the wheel here.  This is a good starting point – Build it Yourself.

Beekeeper inspection hive frame in a homemade bee box image.

Beehive Construction Materials

  • plans or directions with good measurements
  • wood – lumber of the correct dimensions   -consider purchasing frames
  • any tools you require to cut the wood
  • hammer, nails and good wood glue (can buy at Lowes or order from Amazon)
  • beeswax foundation or plastic foundation (if you choose to use foundation & it doesn’t come with frames)
  • any good light color exterior  latex paint

Do not use treated wood. Lumber treated with chemicals can be very hazardous to honey bees! For more ideas here are some additional plans and tips.

Beekeepers across the world use many different materials for making hives for honey bees. Simple pine wood is the most common resource used in the United States. Cypress wood is another popular choice but availability can be an issue and it is more expensive.

Plywood is not the best choice for beehive wood. The glues and chemicals used in making it are concerning. Though some beekeepers do use plywood for temporary swarm catch boxes.

Steps to Build A Honey Bee Hive

  1. choose a hive plan or style – download and print several copies
  2. gather your materials 
  3. cut out materials closely following directions – size matters
  4. assemble parts with nails and good wood glue or screws
  5. purchase frames, wax foundation or any parts that you chose not to build
  6. paint your beehive with exterior latex paint to preserve the wood

Buying Frames for Your Hive

Frames are removable parts that fit inside the bee boxes (hive body and supers). They make it possible to inspect sheets of honeycomb without tearing the comb apart. You can buy plastic frames but wooden ones are most common.

Frames consist of small parts that are difficult to cut. Most beekeepers who build their own hive boxes, still choose to buy frames.

Frame can be purchased ready to go or as a kit of parts that you put together. If you have the time to assemble your hive frames, this is an enjoyable task if you don’t have too many to do.

Sheets of wax foundation in bee frames image.

Choosing Foundation

One of the last components of your beehive will be foundation to fit inside the frames.  Most beekeepers will place foundation inside the wooden frames.  The use of foundation gives the bees a guide to begin comb construction.

Beeswax foundation is the most popular choice and the product that I use. However, you may choose to use plastic foundation or even no foundation. 

I don’t recommend foundation-less beekeeping for beginners.  I feel it brings additional challenges that the new beekeeper doesn’t need.

The final step once your hive is constructed is protecting it from the elements. You don’t have to but most of you will want protect your wood by painting your beehive.

I promise, the honey bees really don’t care. We paint the hives for our pleasure and to preserve the wood. A simple cost of latex paint will work or you can get really creative with some painted hive designs.

After getting your hive assembled and painted, your next step will be to find the best location for your beehive.

For even more important information on finding the best location for your bees and what to do to get them off to a good start, check out my Online Beekeeping Class.

Beekeeping is a great adventure. Begin with only a few hives so you can learn slowly and become a good manager. If you decide building bee hives is a challenge your woodworking skills are up to – go for it.  But for heavens sake – please follow the directions 😉

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  1. Andrew Whaley-Coates says:

    Very interesting Charlotte, Thank you.
    I have often thought of constructing my own honeybee hive and do have some carpentry skills. Maybe I’ll get the opportunity to fulfil my dream this year.
    Andy (Scotland) UK.

  2. Beekeeper Charlotte says:

    Yes, you must try! The bees are very forgiving.

  3. Great article! Thanks!

  4. Beekeeper Charlotte says:

    Thank so much 🙂

  5. All I want is a safe haven for bees. I let one pasture overgrow with dandelions until it gets too tall. Maybe later I will get into harvesting honey.

  6. Beekeeper Charlotte says:

    That’s awesome. More habitat is a great thing to do!

  7. James Seals Jr says:

    This is one of the most useful posts I have seen for the beginner. I am just embarking on my Bee journey and have been reading, watching and studying different methods. I am a youngster, I’ll be 72 this year. Looking forward to helping the Bees survive.

  8. Beekeeper Charlotte says:

    Thank you for your kindness. I wish you a world of success with your hives.

  9. Hi, I live in Missouri. My question is: Where should you put your hive? Should the surroundings be close to trees or what kind of flowers? I have woods behind my house and thought I could place a hive at the skirt of the woods. My flower garden at this time does not exist, do you have any suggestions? Thank you, Judy

  10. Tom Pinnow says:

    How long are frames of pollen good for? I have full frames from colonies that died out this winter. Is this stuff of any use to new packages of bees or should a guy just trash them and install new foundation?

  11. Beekeeper Charlotte says:

    A long time as long as not wax moths etc get in it. If you have room to freeze them for a few days – that would be best and then you can save them for a while.

  12. Is it safe to place the bee box in a corner of my garden? And, how far from the house should it be?

  13. Yes Charlotte, I’m already planning to build some beehive boxes some time in the future. I have the skill, and equipments From what I know the best wood is pine, spruce, or aspen, because atracts bees, are more friendly. Thanks…!

  14. Charlotte Anderson says:

    I think soft wood is nice and personally, I stay away from scented wood because bees are so sensitive to odors.

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